It could be argued this falls squarely under RTFM, but in any case this was a bit of a wild ride.
At work, we have a piece of software that receives a shell script via an API and executes it. Simple enough. The script looked something like this:
#!/usr/bin/env bash set -eu # do some real work echo "done!"
I needed to do some refactoring in that script. Mostly out of habit, I also added the
pipefail option alongside my changes.
#!/usr/bin/env bash set -euo pipefail # do some real work echo "done!"
Innocuous enough. However, about 30min later, I get notified the script failed with:
set: Illegal option -o pipefail
That’s rude. Never in all my years of slinging bash have I seen this. A quick search had me second guessing myself: all responses said “you’re not actually using bash.” OK, then what am I using?
Looking through the executing code:
err := ioutil.WriteFile(path, content, 0600)
Uhm, how are we executing this if it’s not even executa—
cmd := exec.Command("/bin/sh", path) output, err := cmd.CombinedOutput()
Of course, when I run
/bin/sh my_script.sh locally on my Mac it just works! What gives? Popping open
sh is a POSIX-compliant command interpreter (shell). It is implemented by re-execing as either bash(1), dash(1), or zsh(1) as determined by the symbolic link located at /private/var/select/sh.
Checking out that symlink:
$ readlink /private/var/select/sh /bin/bash
Well, that explains why it works locally. Now what about on the actual environment the script is typically executed (Ubuntu)?
man sh actually pops up the docs for dash(1)! Sure enough:
$ readlink /bin/sh dash
dash is a pared-down version of bash. And one of its casualities was the
pipefail option. I suppose I never noticed because normally I’d create executable scripts with the appropriate shebang and
chmod +x. Yet, even if the script file was written out as executable in the Go code above, calling it with sh (or dash, or bash) still ignores the shebang entirely.
I’d say this was a good teachable moment for me:
The shebang only matters if the script has the executable flag and is, well, executed. Otherwise, it’s just a comment.
When running a script with sh, limit code to POSIX-only or, even more strictly, Bourne shell-only features since there’s no guarantee what sh is actually pointing at. This is good for portability, but pretty limiting if you don’t need it.